ee (7

BOTANICAL GAZETTE

iii

EDITORS: JOHN M. COULTER, Lake Forest University, Lake Forest, Ill. CHARLES R. BARNES, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. J. C. ARTHUR, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.

VOLUME XIX

Mo. Bot. Garden, i

| 1894 * MADISON, WISCONSIN PU..\LISHED BY THE EDITORS

TABLE OF CONTENTS. oti Undescribed plants from Guatemala (with plates I, II, ee ¥a,y XXIV-XXVI).- : Fohn Donnell Smith. 1, 255 ‘n the color description of flowers ¥. H. Pillsbury. 5. chenema, protonema and metanema

Conway MacMillan. 490%

Mutualistic symbiosis of algz and bacteria with Cycas : revoluta (with plates III & IV) Albert Schneider. 2 Ba Botanical notes from Bainbridge,Ga. August F. Foerste. 33 On the genus Naegelia of Reinsch (with plate v) . ne Roland Thaxter. 49 |

On some species of Micrasterias crud plate VI). ei

Lica: Shteon.

On the development of the bulb of ies -tongue (with plates VIl& VII) . . Frederick H. Blodgett. Noteworthy anatomical and ee researches

66, 284, 327, $00 The function of the secondary tissues in arborescent monocotyledons . Theo. Holm. The réle of the pericycle in the ‘root of. Dracaena 2 pinata <.. ; : co. Holm, Vegetable ferments © x. BS Bay. a Equiseta in the carbonifetous aun ad Whit fee

The mechanics of growing plants D. Tr. MacDougal. The fixation of free nitrogen by pati ove Pe Seow Rassolh: The influence of traction upon the growth of plants | . Heald. Nourishment of the embryo and the ienpadiaee of the endosperm in viviparous teal ots plants eee Fe RS.

iv The Botanical Gazette.

Color bodies in seeds and seedlings G. H. Hicks. Investigations on pine and oak wood L. S. Cheney. Adaptation of African plants to climate ; : Theo. Holm. Some rare Myxomycetes of Central New York, with notes on the germination of Enteridium Rozeanum

(with plates IX&X) - - Elias ¥. Durand. Notes on the life history of a blue-green motile cell (with plate XI). ; ; : Bradley M. Davis.

Flowers and insects. XII. Charles Robertson.

_ An auxanometer for the registration of growth of stems

in thickness (with plates XII & XIII) : ;

Riskentas E. Golden.

Artificial cultures of an entomogenous fungus (with plates

XIV-XVI1) George F. Atkinson.

On the aneorptign . water by the green parts of plants

V. F. Ganong.

The Ware eotlettion of Blaschka glass models of flowers

at Harvard ; . Walter Deane.

The influence of pretictieal resistance on the develop-

ment and life period of cells . : .

Frederick C. Nesiconabe: 149, I9I,

A study of Quercus Leana . é #5 FFs

A contribution to the histology of the Pontederiacee

(with. plate XVII) . : Edgar W. Olive. Notes on Ueepiuce (with elite xvii) ;

William Albert Setchell

Leaf movement in Cercis acremeyyee- (with plates XIX &

XX) , : ss S. G. Wright.

Thomas Means - : Walter Deane.

New mosses of North Aarne (with plates XXI & XXII)

F. Renauld and ¥. Cardot.

Notes on Richardia Africana . : Ernest Walker.

A preliminary synopsis of the North American species

of Amaranthus

Edwin B. Uline sno Wm. 7 Bear. 268,

215 225.

237 Sy

241

313 a

Table of Contents.

Notes on our Hepatice, II. Pleodorina, a new genus of Volvocinee (with plate’ XXVII) . Walter R. Shaw. Description of new species of the Uredinez and Ustila- gine, etc. (with plate XxXIXx) E James Logan Fohn W. Harshberger. Crystals of ice on ‘stint F. Christian Bay. The evolution of the Hepatice Lucien M. Underwood. Proceedings of Section G, A. A. A. S. Papers read before Section G, A. faa: Ma Titles of informal papers and notes presented besaee the Botanical Club, A. A. A. S. ; 5 : Filices Mexicane. V. George E. Davenport. Notes on Cribraria minutissima and Licea minima ; George A. Rex. Eduard Strasburger with portrait: plate XXXI) . © Fames Ellts inphres. Popular American plant-names Fanny D. Bergen. The nature and distribution of attraction spheres and centrosomes in vegetative cells (with plate XXXIII) Fohn H. Schaffner. Notes on dédoublement (illustrated) August F. Foerste. Contribution to the comparative histology of pulvini and resultitg photeolic movements (with plate XXXIV) Fred DeForest Heald. Two new ferns from New England George E. Davenport Some notes on the Leguminoss of Siam Glenn Calpers

.

.

BRIEFER ARTICLES—

Three new species of Mexican plants aes netgear 39 Frost freaks of ee plants hig 40

, A hybrid Baptis re Maclion: 42 Notes upon the sevikwceiecs and Rocky mountain hore’ '

A. Isabel Mulford. 1%7 Frost plan T. MacDougal. 120. iteal sore oa collection “of the U. S. National Herbarium

F. V. Coville. 121

P. Dietel. 302

L. M. Underwood. 273

279.

397 321 347 362

2 ae ake

vi . 3 The Botanical Gazette.

am “a Compass plan : : ; Thomas Meehan. 168.7 a An aiditional | poisonous plant " E ; John W. Harshberger. 1§9 Notes from Ver ; : , rout, 200. Other poisonous alae By ron D. Halsted 200 Olpitrichum, a new pons of mucedinous fungi (with bases py XII) rge ‘Atkinson, Notes on germinating breton tg spores . : ! . McClatchie. 245 ae Sphaeroplea-annulina in Mi C. onway McMillan, 246 aa ee on Stellaria cad (with plate XxVII1) Ida Clendenin, 296° aad peculiar malformation of an ovary and —— on en rubra- 3 gra ahaaes : : Minnie Reed. Germinating seeds in sawdus G. E. Stone, 3;

i ge = the developeinen of a alagk entous form of Protococcus in en- : : ostracan ha (with cay “iy Josephine E. Tilden

hic euuen notes : Merritt L. Fernald 3 Cross reo beeen of petunias : 5 : 3 . Minnie Reed. 3 Trilliu ernuum . i 3 : x ; waite S Owen.

An abn ormal Hepatica . 2 : : ; : Walter Deane. 338. Pleodorina in Indiana . : : : ; . David i "Mo tlier Pleodorina in Ilinoi ! ; : : G:F. Clinton. Fruiting of Eustichia Norvegica ; i : : . L. S, Cheney ae New localities : : ; ; ; G. P. Clinton, 415. Two Wisconsin fungi ; ; ; : ; ; J. J ae a5 Ruled slides . i . W. J. Beal, ES

New genus of Umbeliiterss (with es xxx) John

ean ge oe papa Lohd : : George F. A Hinson a Valdiv n Massachusetts . «George C. Kennedy. ee nia malvy; ae W. Heh as ‘manifested by the swarm “spores of Rhizophidium glo- sum (A. Br.) Sch : e F. Atkinson. 503 . The wild Hest ‘Mines sags eee ecomet eg Reid V. Coville. a. Salsola Kali tragus Sen ap i, Pane eee oe Fill. tees Lemna Valdiviana . : : ; , , : ‘Walter Deane. 507

EDITORIAL 160, 201, 248, 339, 508. OPEN LETTERS

Acknowledgment . ; : 4 M. A. Carleton 81 . new code of nomenclature : . Otto Kuntze.

A criticism of the ‘‘Synonomy of Ju noodes’*. F. V. Coville.

A defense of the Boteniecher teahagrig dint x whne

Jn compas S plants and the tw is es» lea ee Bay. ae Mast Studies’ p "Conway McMillan. id. a Warcisatis coc i : ne os nee Comment on ‘‘The meaning of tree life” ; : Roscoe Pound. 2 CURRENT DLS ERTURE = (For titles see Index under “Review. e 43, 74, 122, 162, 202, 249, 299, 341, 385, 417, 409, 50 c . NOTES AND NEWs—

ERRATA.

3, line 6 from bottom, for ‘‘avatis’’ read ovatis.

3, line 5 from bottom, for ‘‘villose’’ read villoso.

4, line 22, for ‘‘latio’’ read lat

9, line 21, for ‘‘pynctulatis’’ ee punctulatis.

12, line 17 from bottom, insert comma after verticillate.

23, line 5, for ‘‘a’’ read a

54, line 9 of footnote, for ‘‘those’’ read these

54, line 13 of footnote, for ‘‘Sapromytces’’ hed ro agi 86, line 12 from bottom, for eee read -pediu

86, line 6 from bottom, for ‘‘Acw’’ d Kew 118, line 3 from bottom, soe aaa read several. 151, line 16, for ‘‘Lindb.”’ Lindl. 191, line 9 from bottom, be gale read limits. 191, line 8 from bottom, for ‘‘line’’ fp one. 199, line II, for definite” read definitive. 199, line 15, for Bivrccietin oe read Seas 253, line 23, for ‘‘Name’’ read Maine. 253, line 6 from bottom, for ‘“‘Osterhaut’’ read Osierhou 253, line 4 from bottom, for ‘‘he’’ read we; for ‘'sent’’ Hee send. ie 255, line 11, for ‘‘ovata’’ read ovato \ 255, line 19, deve comma at end of line. 256, line 7 from bottom, for ‘‘Layas’’ read Lajas. 257, line 2, for ‘‘infirma’’ read infima. oon p. 268, line 8 from bottom, for ‘'132’’ read 13°. ; p. 269, line 22, enclose ‘tin part’’ in parentheses. p. 269, line 6 oer bottom, insert comma after ‘‘thin.’’ p. 270, line 15 from bot ee dele comma before Anderss., and after ined. in--

sert ex a Gis Pen ot

- p. 271, line 12, for ‘‘petiole’’ read phtegs p. 272, line 7 from bottom, de/e Son p. 277, line 5, for “Donnelli’’ read ace -‘p. 281, line e after ‘‘attachment’’ add of the cilia. p. 308, line 6 from bottom, for pa pie "' read appears. Pp. 312, line 14, for ‘‘on’’ read a Pp. 364, line 15 from bottom, for rt L.’’ read N. L. p. 385, line 6, for ‘‘funi’’ read fungi. p. 415, line 3, for ‘‘myt’’ read my-. p. 450, line 21, for ‘‘Neves’”’ read Meves. Pp. 455, lines 11 and 19, for ‘'45°’’ read 90°.

[vii] a

Se Meee ee Se SOS Se eS

JANUARY, 1894.

THE BOTANICAL GAZETTE

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In the February. number will appear: oe Observations on Negeliella, by Dr. ROLAND THAXTER, ae Harvard University, ae be Mass. as On some species of Mi ‘jas, by L. N. JOHNSON, S University of Michigan, oS Arbor. _ On the development of the bulb of the adder’s-ton re y by FREDERICK A. . BLopcerr, Ehuee College, New Bruns: | etn N. oe a oop i Hots and J ca ee

Plate I.

Botanical Gazette, 1894

C.E.Faxon del.

B. Meisel, Lith.Boston.

ARDISIA PASGHALIS, n. sp.

_

>, Ma g.

BOTANICAL GAZETTE

FANUARY, 1894.

Undescribed plants from Guatemala. XII.

JOHN DONNELL SMITH. WITH PLATES I AND IH. M. Casimir de Candolle has contributed to this article diag- noses and descriptions of new species among the MELIACEZ and PIPERACE@ submitted to him for elaboration.

Peltostigma pentaphyllum.—Petioles half to two-thirds as long as leaves; leaflets 5, obovate-oblong to elliptical-oblong (6-8 x 2~—2.5"), the exterior pair reduced, acuminate, taper- ing to petiolule, entire: peduncle with 3-flowered cyme sub- equalling petiole, pedicels ebracteate: sepals chiefly 4; 2 exterior herbaceous, ovate (1—2'): petals chiefly 5, exceeding interior sepal (8'): ovary 7-10-locular, truncate-conic, as broad as gynophore (3'); stigmas before anthesis sacciform, oval (1.5 x 1’); capsule globose, the matured not seen.—A tree 15-21" high with spreading branches. P. pteleotdes Walp., which has been the monotype of the genus, and recorded only from Jamaica, differs by short petioles, ternate smaller leaflets, compound inflorescence equalling leaves, smaller flowers, less numerous and less unequal parts of peri- anth.—Zamorora, Depart. Santa Rosa, alt. 5,500°, March 1892 and April 1893, Heyde & Lux, (ex Pl. Guatemal. qu. edid. J. D. S. 3,058 and 4,437).

Cabralea insignis C. DC.—Foliis maximis modice petio- latis abrupto-pinnatis 19-jugis, foliolis oppositis sessilibus anguste oblongis basi equali subacutis obtusisve apice ob- tusiuscule cuspidatis utrinque glabris, nervis secundariis sub- patulis tenuibus utrinque 25 et plus, fructu globoso glabro loculis monospermis.—Arbor? Foliumtotum ad 65 longum. Foliola ad 14.5 longa 2.5™ lata in sicco membranacea sub-

I—Vol. XIX.—No. 1.

2 The Botanical Gazette. , [January,

pellucida late virescentia subtiliter pellucido-punctulata ver- ruculis porosisdestituta. Rhachisteres. Petiolus 10™ longus. Fructus indehiscens circiter 4.5™ in diametro, levis in sicco fuscescens. Semina elliptica circiter 18"" longa. Cotyle- dones carnosi coriacei elliptici, radicula intra cotyledones immersa.—Species magnitudine foliorum insignis, C. palles- centis C. DC. subaffinis.—Acatepeque, Depart. Zacatepequez, alt. 4,300", March 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,570. a Guarea Luxii C. DC. Foliis modice petiolatis 3-jugis, foliolis brevissime petiolulatis oppositis lanceolatis subaqua- libus supra glabris subtus junioribus adpresse pilosulis cito glabris, rhachi adpresse hirsuta, paniculis quam folii dimid- ium brevioribus simplicibus modice pedunculatis spicatim cymuligeris, floribus longiuscule pedicellatis, calyce cupuli- formi extus adpresse hirtello margine brevissime acute 4- denticulato, petalis glabris oblongis apice acutis, tubo glabro ~ cylindrico margine obtuse 8-crenulato, antheris oblongis glabris, ovario glabro ovato stipitem superante apice in sty- lum glabrum attenuato.—Frutex aut arbor 4-6" alta, ramulis junioribus adpresse pubescentibus cito glabris levibus subcin- | erascentibus, fructiferis in sicco circiter 2™ crassis. Foliola in sicco membranacea firmulave subpellucida crebre minute pellucido-punctulata ad 9.5™ longa et ad 3™ lata, nervis Se- cundariis subpatulis tenuibus utrinque circiter 15. Petio- luli vix 2™ longi. Petioli ad 5™ longi. Flores circiter 37 longi. Petala 4 zstivatione valvata in sicco rubescentia. Antherz 8 tubi denticulis opposite parve. Ovarium 4-locu- lare loculis uniovulatis. Capsula in specimine nondum ma- tura subglobosa glabra circiter 12™ longa.—Species G. pedi- cellate C. DC. et G. Shomburgkii C. DC. affinis.—S. Rosa, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 3,000", March 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,276. 4 Trichilia Donnell-Smithii C. DC. Foliis modice peti- olatis 4-5-jugis, foliolis breviter petiolulatis plerumque OPP sitis subequalibus e basi cuneata obovato-oblongis apice TO tundatis obtusisve vel breviter obtusiuscule acuminatis utrin= que breviter haud dense pilosulis, paniculis e basi decomposttis quam petioli brevioribus, floribus longiuscule pedicellatis, calyce acute profunde 5-dentato extus dense hirtello, petalis 5 extus adpresse hirtellis ellipticis apice subacutis, staminibus- medium usque in tubum urceolatum glabrum connatis sursum laciniosis laciniis utrinque pilosis apice acute 2-dentatis, am

1894. ] Undescribed Plants from Guatemala, 3

theris 10 glabris oblongis apice acutis, ovario globoso glabro in disco carnoso glabro subcupuliformi insidente 3-loculari, loculis 2-ovulatis, capsule glabra 3-valvatz loculis monospermis, seminibus ellipticis arilloque rubris. —Ramuli juniores hirsuti dein subglabri in sicco fuscescentes elenticellosi. Folia ad 16” longa. Foliola ad 8™ longa ad 2.5™ lata in sicco firma subopaca epunctata, nervis secundariis plerumque alternis subadscendentibus utrinque circiter 8-10. Rhachis cum pe- tiolo 3™ longo teres hirtella. Floris pedicellus 2" longus. Petala 9™ longa in sicco flavicantia. Anthere inter lacini- arum dentes sessiles. Ovarii loculi oppositisepali, ovulis super- positis. Stylus glaber ovario zquilongus. Seminis testa dura. Embryo intra perispermium album carnosum inclusus, cotyledonibus foliaceis elliptico-rotundatis basi breviter cord- ulatis, radicula exserta brevi, plumula minima. Species quoad floris structuram in sectione EUTRICHILIA (C.DC. monogr.) collocanda’sed propter semen perispermium inclu- dens ab omnibus Trichiliis quorum fructus notus discrepans.— Laguna Amatitlan, Depart. Amatitlan, alt. 3,900", March 1890, J. D. S., no. 1,908; Volcan de Fuego, Depart. Zacate- pequez, alt. 5,500°, March 1892, J. D. S., 2,504.

Var. #. Uniovulata C. DC.—Staminum laciniis extus glabris, ovarii loculi uniovulati. Folia inferiora 1—2-juga cum impari foliolis lateralibus multum majore ad 9™ longo et

Guatemala, alt. 5,000°, Febr. 1890, J. D. S., no. 1,909.

Trichilia Heydeana C. DC. Foliis modice petiolatis 3-4-jugis, foliolis subzqualibus brevissime petiolulatis lanceo- lato-oblongis basi zquali acutis apice obtuse cuspidatis supra puberulis subtus dense molliter fulvescente-pubescentibus pan- iculis quam folia multum brevioribus dense pubescentibus, fere a basi ramosis, floribus breviter pedicellatis, calyce extus dense pubescente profunde acute 5-dentato, petalis 5 extus pubescentibus lanceolatis, staminibus inferne in tubum brevem glabrum cum disco connatum coalitis sursum laciniosis laciniis apice obtusis utrinque et intus densius hirsutis, antheris hir- tellis avatis apice acutis, ovario disco lato supra villoso insi- dente villose 3-loculari.—Arbor 10-12" alta. Ramuli juniores adpresse fulvescente-hirsuti, dein glabri in sicco fuscescentes lenticellis concoloribus. Limbi ad 12™ longi ad 4.5 lati in sicco subcoriacei opaci crebre pellucido-punctulati, nervis secundariis utrinque circiter 12 patule subadscendentibus.

4 The Botanical Gazette. [January, Petioli ad 2™™ longi. Rhachis cum petiolo 3™ longo teres dense _ fulvescente-hirsuta. Panicule rami ad 7™ longi fere a medio brevissime ramulosi, ramulis apice dense cymuligeris. Florum | pedicelli 1™ parum superantes. Alabastra subglobosa. Calycis dentes lanceolati. Petala circiter 2™ longa in estivatione imbricata. Antherz 10 lacinias subequantes.—Species T. Wawrane C. DC. et T. Glaztovtt C. DC. affinis.—Naranjo, Depart. Escuintla, alt. 300°, March 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,574; Rio Esclavos, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 3,000", May 1892, Heyde ~ & Lux, no. 3,274; S. Rosa, alt. 3,000%, May 1892, Heyde & © Lux, no. 3,275. 5 Cedrela impari-pinnata C. DC. Foliis longe petiolatis impari-pinnatis 3—5-jugis, foliolis lanceolatis basi equali acutis apice acute acuminatis subequalibus utrinque puberulis later- alibus oppositis subsessilibus rhachi puberula, capsula oblonga ~ glabra 4-valvata seminibus elliptico-oblongis.—Ramuli jun- _ iores puberuli dein glabri leves in sicco fuscescentes, cortice tenui. Folia cum impari ad 34™ longa. Foliola in sicco membranacea subpellucida subtiliter pellucido-punctulata ad gm longa ad 3™ lata, nervis secundariis subpatulis utrinque q circiter 12. Capsula circiter 5™ longa valvis lanceolatis medio circiter 12™ latio. Semen cum ala 3™ longum, ala tenuis- sima. Species foliis impari-pinnatis insignis, C. Vellozian@— Reem. quoad foliorum formam affinis.—Volcan de Fuego, alt. 6,000", March 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,571. 3 Oreopanax Taubertianum.—Primordial leaves broadly tri- angular; petioles robust, base abruptly broadly dilated and | amplexicaul; leaflets digitately 5-9, chiefly 7, obovate-ellip- tical (6-9 x 2-3"), acutely acuminate, tapering to petiolule, coarsely and sharply toothed above middle, membranaceous, upper surface furfuraceous or glabrate, the lower stellate-pu- 3 bescent, areolation minute and pellucid-punctulate: staminate racemes elongated (16-24"), curving; pedicels pubescent, crowded, slender, thrice exceeding small (3') globose heads;

1894.] Undescribed Plants from Guatemala. 5

by M. Marchal, of O. Xalapense Dene et Planch. The only other species described with digitate leaflets, O. Thibautiz Hook. f., is reduced by M. Marchal to a form of O. Xalapense (cf. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 30: 282).—A tree 30-40° high with branchlets half-encircled by the scars of fallen leaves, known to the natives as Mata-gente.—Barranca de Corona, Depart. Guatemala, alt. 4,700", Febr. 1890 and 1892, J. D. S., nos. 1,905 and 2,664; S. Rosa, alt. 4,000%, March 18g92,. Heyde & Lux, no. 3,096; Chiapas, riled S. Rosa, alt. 3,500", Sept. 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,967.

Ardisia paschalis.—Glabrous: leaves obovate or elliptical (6-7.5 X 3-3.5"), obtuse, narrowing to short canaliculate mar- ginate petiole, entire, coriaceous, nitid, rubro-punctate and -striolate: panicle terminal, exceeding leaves; flowers racemose on primary branches, single, 5-merous, rubro-maculate, pedi- cels longer and in fruit nodding: divisions of calyx convolute, round-ovate (1.5'): corolla in prefloration dextrorsely con- torted, yellowish-white, the conspicous stellate centre thick- ened by dark-yellow pigment-cells, tube minute (half a line) and equalling explanate throat, obtuse segments oblong (4') and revolute: stamens slightly monadelphous at apex of tube; anthers ovoid-oblong (2'), twice exceeding filaments, apiculate, before anthesis cohering in a cone by longitudinal sutures of of dehiscence: ovary ovoid, style filiform: fruit pisiform (3—4'), endocarp crustaceous. —A shrub 6-9" high, with fragrant and showy flowers that are singularly large for the genus, called by the natives CAz/i/, and used during Easter week for decor- ating the altars of the churches. —Cuyotenango, Depart. Su- chitepequez, alt. 1,100", April 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,465; S Rosa, alt. 3,000", May 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,023; Cerro Gordo, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 3,500%, Sept. 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,988; Casillas, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 4,000°, May 1893, Heyde & Lux, no. 4,537. Collected also along Rio ine i S. Pedro Sula, Honduras, July 1887, by Dr. C. Thiem

EXPLANATION OF PLate I.—Fig. 1, branch with flowers. Fig. 2, branch with fruit. Fig. 3. portion of leaf. Fig. 4, flower-bud. Fig. 5, open flower.

6, stamens. Fig. 7, pistil. =e 8, half of a corolla with stamens. Fig. 9, vertical section of fruit. (Figs. and 2 are natural size; in the others the ob- jects are variously enlarged.)

Piper Luxii C. DC. III. Srerrensta C. DC.)—Foliis modice petiolatis elliptico-lanceolatis basi inzquali acutis supra presertim ad nervos subtusque densius breviter hirsutis,

6 The Botanical Gazette. (January,

nervo centrali vix ad } longitudinis sue nervos adscendentes utrinque 5 mittente, petiolo hirsuto basi vaginante, pedun- culo quam petiolus breviore, amento ipso per anthesin limbi dimidium vix equante apice mucronato, bractea obovato- oblonga apice rotundata utrinque dense villosa, filamentis elongatis antheris ellipticis quam filamenta pluries brevioribus, ovario conico parce piloso apice in stylum circiter eo equilong- um glabrum attenuato, stigmatibus linearibus recurvis. Ramuli juniores dense villosi dein subglabrati, in sicco nigres- centes leves, amentiferi circiter 2" crassi, collenchymate in| cortice continuo zona fibrosa continua intus aucto, fasciculis intramedularibus uniseriatis. Limbi in sicco membranacei i nigrescentes pellucido-punctulati ad 20™ longi ad 9™ lati, juniores leves dein supra subbullati. Petiolus ad limbi latus longius circiter 2™ longus. Amentum per anthesin circiter 6™™ crassum. Stamina 4 filamentis longis exsertis. Stigmata 3.—Species P. /razuant C. DC. proxima, ab eo nervorum

numero bractea apice obtusa ac longius densiusque pubescente et antheris oblongis discrepans.—San Miguel Uspantdn, De-— part. Quiché, alt. 6,000", April 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,462.

i ae

ie

usque nervos utrinque 4 alternos adscendentes nervulosqu validos mittente, petiolo basi ima vaginante dorso hirtello, pedunculo quam petiolus circiter } longiore puberulo, amento ipso limbi dimidium vix zquante apice mucronulato, bracte® pelta triangulari margine dense et longiuscule hirsuta pedicello extus piloso, antheris subglobosis quam filamenta brevioribus, ovario glabro, bacca glabra.—Suffrutex 1-1.5” altus, ramulis junioribus hirtellis dein glabris punctulis albis conspersis 2.5™" crassis in sicco teretibus, collenchymate in cortice sub- continuo zonaque fibrosa discontinua intus aucto, fasciculi intramedullaribus uniseriatis. Limbi in sicco membranace

connectivo supra loculos brevissime producto. Bacca tetra gona stylo destituta vertice in sicco rufescens. Stigmata 3: San Miguel Uspantdn, alt. 8,000, April 1892, Heyde & i no. 3,460; Cerro Gordo, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 3, 500", Sept 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,827.

1894. ] Undescribed Plants from Guatemala. 7

Piper Yzabalanum C. DC. in Donnell Smith Enum. PI. Guat. pars 1!1.—Foliis longiuscule petiolatis ample ovatis basi inzequali cordulatis apice breviter acute acuminatis utrinque glabris, nervo centrali paulo ultra medium nervos utrinque 7 patule adscendentes mittente, petiolo glabro limbum usque vaginante, pedunculo quam petiolus adultus 4-plo breviore glabro, amento quam folium pluries breviore apice breviter mucronato, bractee spathulate vertice inflexo triangulari glabro pedicello lato basi inter baccas producto et hirtello, bacca glabra vertice pulposa.—-Ramuli glabri punctulis albis notati in sicco complanati 4-5" crassi, fasciculis collenchy- matosis in cortice distinctis intus fibris aliquot auctis, fascicu- lis intramedullaribus uniseriatis. Limbi 18 longi circiter 12 lati in sicco membranacei pellucido-punctulati. Petioli circiter 4™ longi. Amenta matura ad 6.5 longa 5™™ crassa. Bacce subtetragone stylo destitute vertex pulposus in sicco ambitu subproductus. Stamina 4. Stigmata 3.—Boca del Polochic, Depart. Yzabal, alt. 200, April 1889, J. D. S., no, Iy7r2.

Piper Heydei C. DC. (§V. PoroMorPHE C. DC.)—Foliis longe petiolatis adultis } supra limbi basin peltatis ovato- rotundatis amplis basi rotundatis repando-subcordatis apice breviter acute acuminatis supra glabris subtus presertim ad nervos nervulosque fulvescenti-hirsutis 14-plinerviis nervo centrali nervos adscendentes utrinque 3 supra limbi basin et ad ; longitudinis mittente ceteris nervis e petiolo divarican- tibus, petiolo medium usque vaginante dorso apicem versus parce hirsuto, amentis apice ramuli sat longi glabri circiter 12-umbellatis longiuscule pedunculatis ipsis florentibus quam foliorum limbi pluries brevioribus, bractez pelta triangulari margine fulvescente hirsuta, antheris subglobosis, ovario glabro.—2" altum. Folia juvenilia haud peltata basi cordata. Limbi in sicco firmule membranacei subopaci pellucido-punc- tati 33 longi medioque lati. Petioli adulti circiter 16™ longi. Ramuli amentiferi glabri verisimiliter axillares 16 longi. Amentorum pedunculi 5 longi. Amenta ipsa adhuc juven- ilia inequilonga ad 9™ longa. Stamina 3 quorum 2 lateralia tertium posticum. Anthere filamentis circiter zquilonge. Ovarium ovatum apice attenuatum adhuc juvenile. —Species limbis subtus hirsutis, ramulis amentiferis multo longioribus et presertim floribus 3-staminalibus a P. peltato L. valde dis- crepans.—San Miguel Uspantan, alt. 7,000%, April 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,461.

8 The Botanical Gazette.

PIPER TUBERCULATUM Jacq. ic. rar., var. 6. obtusifolium C. DC.—Foliis apice rotundatis czeterum ut in specie.— Frutex 3” altus.—Rio Ocosito, Depart. Quezaltenango, alt. 250", April 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,592; S. Rosa, alt. 3,000%, June 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,464. Collected also near © Grenada, Nicaragua, by Lévy, no. 93. a

Peperomia macrophylla C. DC. Foliis petiolatis an- guste lanceolato-oblongis basi in petiolum decurrentibus_ apice acute acuminatis utrinque glabris pellucido-punctulatis penninerviis, nervo centrali fere a tota longitudine nervos adscendentes utrinque circiter 10 mittente, amentis ad ramos axillares aphyllos quam folia parum breviores laxe circiter 5 paniculatim dispositis ipsis breviter pedunculatis folii dimidium vix zquantibus, bractea suborbiculari centro brevissime pe- dicellata, ovario apice oblique scutatim complanato scutello elliptico apice obtuso in medio stigma carnulosum gerente,

decumbente e nodis radicante superne suberecta. Folia alterna. Limbi ad 20™ longi et ad 3.5 lati in sicco mem- branacei subpellucidi basi in petiolum ad 3™ longum angustati. Amenta matura in sicco 2™ crassa, basi squamis lanceolatis deciduis fulta, inferiora 2 alterna superiora 2 opposita ultimum terminale. Pedunculi circiter 5™™ longi. Antherz minute. : Bacce brevissime stipitate cum scutello 1.5" longz.—Palin, Depart. Amatitlan, alt. 3,560°, Feb. 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,578; Barranca de Eminencia, Depart. Amatitlan, alt 1,400", Feb. 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,579.

P eperomia violefolia C. DC. Foliis longe petiolatis & basi cordata inferioribus rotundafis superioribus ovatis apice _ acute acuminatis utrinque glabris 7~-9-nerviis, amentis oppositi-_ foliis sublaxifloris breviter pedunculatis glabris foliorum limbos -

reviore. Bacca stipitem suum pluries superans circiter @

1894. ] Undescribed Plants from Guatemala. 9

Peperomia Sisiana C. DC.—Foliis modice petiolatis ob- longo-lanceolatis basi acutis apice longiuscule anguste et sub- falcatim acuminatis utrinque glabris junioribus margine cilio- latis 7-plinerviis nervis lateralibus utrinque 2 e basi uno ex t longitudinis supra basin solutis, petiolo juniore parce hirtello, amentis adultis folia duplo superantibus filiformibus glabris densifloris, bractea orbiculari centro subsessile, ovario emer- So apice scutatim aucto, scutello in medio stigmatifero apice acuminato, stigmate minuto, bacca emersa patente cylindrica apice oblique rostellata.—Herba e basi radicante ramulos cir- citer 25™ longos erectos apice parce hirtellos inferne glabros agens. Folia alterna. Limbi in sicco membranacei subpel- lucidi ad 9 longi et 3—3.5™ lati. Petioli ad 1™ longi. Amenta matura vix 2™ crassa. Bacce 1.5"" longe.—Species P. Na- ranjoane C. DC. proxima, forsan eadem cum amentis maturis longioribus, limbis basi acutis a P. elongata Kunth differt sed ejus quoque proxima.—Rio Sis, Depart. Suchitepequez, alt. 1,300", April 1892, J. D. S., no. 2,584.

Peperomia San-Felipensis C. DC. Foliis breviter peti- olatis anguste lanceolatis basi et apice acutis utrinque glabris et nigro-pynctulatis 5-nerviis, amentis terminalibus axillari- busque breviter pedunculatis glabris nigro-punctulatis subden- sifloris ipsis folia circiter duplo superantibus, bractea orbicu- lari centro subsessili, ovario emerso sub apice oblique stigma- tifero, bacca subglobosa glabra. —Herba repens glabra cauli- bus in sicco 1.5"" crassis. Folia alterna. Limbi in sicco fir- mulo-membranacei subpellucidi 3-4™ longi 8—10™ lati nervis subtilibus. Petioli6™™ longi. Pedunculi vix5"" longi. Amenta i" crassa. Species P. glabelle Sw. proxima limbis angus- tioribus nervorum numero ramulisque glabris ab ea discrepans. —San Felipe, Depart. Retalhuleu, alt. 2,050", April 1892, JD: Sj No: 4: 88%, :

pellucida. Folia alterna. Limbi adulti ad 13™ longi cum petiolis ad 20™ longis in sicco tenuiter membranacei pellucidi. Pedunculi circiter 4™ longi. Amenta in sicco membranacea

10 The Botanical Gazette. (January,

PP bs Wie ae

2™™ crassa. Bractea iumqueg p Pp —_— Species P. Gardneriane Migq. affinis.— Laguna de Ayarza, Depart. Jalapa, alt. 8,000°, Sept. 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. © 3,834. a Var. #. minor C. DC. —Foliis minoribus, limbis ad 9™ _longis in sicco paulo firmioribus, petiolis ad 6™ longis, amentis _ foliorum limbos superantibus. —Estanzuela, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 2,500%, Aug. 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,835. ; Peperomia Guatemalensis C. DC. Foliis breviter petio- latis subrhombeo-lanceolatis basi cuneatis apice obtusiusculis supra glabris subtus pilosulis 5-nerviis nervis externis subtil-_ ibus, amentis terminalibus vel axillaribus pedunculatis glabris folia pluries superantibus densifloris, bractea elliptica paulo supra medium peltata subsessili, ovario rhachi impresso obovato apice oblique stigmatifero, bacca globosa glabra.— _ Herba erecta circiter 12™ alta inter muscos crescens, caulibus pilosulis inferne radicantibus. Folia inferiora opposita superiora alterna. Limbi in sicco membranacei subopaci pel lucido-punctulati 3-5™ longi 1.5-2™ lati. Petioli ad 4™ longi. Pedunculi ad 8™ longi. Amenta glabra ipsa matura circiter 10™ longa in sicco 1.5™" crassa. —Species P. Bauertan@ Miq. proxima.—Acatepeque, alt. 4,300°, March 1892, J. D- i} OL: 2, 587. |

in sicco complanati, amentiferi circiter 2™ crassi, steriles ad o crassi. Limbi caulium fertilium 2™ longi 13” lati, stet ilium ad 3™ longi et ad 15™™ lati. Petioli 2—3™ longi. Ped- unculi ad 2™ longi. Amenta florentia ad 13™ longa et 4 2™" lata.—P. obcordate Presl verisimiliter proxima sed folils majoribus et minus profunde emarginatis ab ea discrepans.— S. Rosa, alt. 3,000%, June 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,454

Pilea Pansamalana.

1894. ] Undescribed Plants from Guatemala. II

phous and very unequal in the pair; the larger lanceolate to rhomboid-elliptical (18-36 6-10'), tapering each way from middle, apex obtuse, base acutely narrowed into short (2-3') petiole; the smaller obovate or rhomboid-orbicular, apex rounded, base acute, petiolate: dicecious; pistillate cymes (the only seen) not exceeding petiole of larger leaves, pedunculate, divaricate, flowers pedicellate, interior segment of perianth subequalling the others and minutely cucullate, twice ex- ceeded bystaminodes, half as long as obliquely oval (0.75') and pubescent achenium.—Nearest to P. dendrophila Mig.—On decayed mossy trunks of trees, Pansamald forest, Depart. Alta Verapaz, alt. 3,800", June 1886, von Tiirckheim, no. 939.

Pilea riparia. Stem repent, elongate, ligneous, simple branches ascending (6-12™): stipules minute, deltoid; leaves glabrous, thick, subentire, 3-nerved from*base to middle on upper surface and nearly to apex on reticulated lower surface; the larger in the pair oblong-elliptical (3.5-4x 1.75"), long- acuminate, tapering gradually to short (2-4') petiole; the other a fourth smaller, obovate-elliptical, abruptly acuminate; cystoliths of upper surface densely stellulate-punctiform, of lower minutely linear, of margins large and fusiform: dice- cious; staminate cymes not seen; the pistillate pedunculate, little exceeding petiole, divaricate, interior segment of peri- anth lightly gibbous on back and scarcely exceeding the oth- ers, staminodes as long, oval achenium thrice longer (0. 5’) and smooth.—Nearest to P. marginata Wedd.—Specimens of this, as well as also of the other proposed new species ex- cept P. irrorata, have been compared by Dr. Taubert in the Berlin Herbarium. Iam likewise indebted to him for the identification of several other Pilee, difficult of determination without the aid of authenticated material.2-On rocks in a stream, Pansamald, alt. 3,800°, August 1886, von Tiirck- heim, no. 1,040.

Pilea irrorata. Herbaceous; stem shortly rooting at base, stout, simple or forked (1-2"): stipules elongate-trian- gular (2-3'), persistent; petioles long (1.5-3.5"), canaliculate, dilated at base and apex; leaves membranaceous, smooth, ample (6-9 x 2-4"), elliptical, caudate-acuminate, obtuse, base acuminate, the opposite uniform and nearly equal, sinuate- serrulate above middle, 3-nerved from insertion to apex,. transverse veins distinct and subparallel, above punctulate and toward base lineolate, cystoliths scarcely present beneath:

12 The Botanical Gazette. [January,

monoecious or dicecious; cymes unisexual, subsessile, brac- teose, densely flowered; the staminate semi-globose (5-8! high), axes explanate, fascicled pedicels filiform (3'), perianth before anthesis obpyramidate (0.75') with inflexed cucullate tips, rudimentary ovary nearly obsolete; pistillate cymes smaller and glomeruliform, staminodes most minute, exterior segments of perianth small.—Distinguished chiefly by the long pedicels of staminate flowers.—Pendent from irrigated cliffs of the Barranca of Rio Samald, Depart. Retalhuleu, alt. toc", spt .1692, }..D::S., no.. 2,751:

Pilea pleuroneura. Rooting at woody base, ascending (12-18"), branching composite, branchlets complanate and alate, glabrous, glandulose: stipules minutely semi-obicular; leaves distichous, subsessile, lanceolate (7-9x1.5-2'), the smaller in the pair half as long and elliptical, apex obtuse, 2—5-crenate, the inferior half entire and cuneate, penninerved, the stronger 7-9 nerves ascending to margin, veins immersed, cystoliths present only on upper surface and linear: dicecious; staminate flowers not seen; the pistillate fasciculate at apex of longer (I-1.5') peduncle, short pedicels recurved, cucullate segment of perianth twice exceeding the others, achenium obliquely ovate (0.5') and rubro-punctate.—Pansamali, alt. 3,800", June 1885, von Tiirckheim, no. 754. :

Pilea senarifolia. Herbaceous, glabrous; stem repent, branches ascending (12~-18"), opposite or verticillate branch- lets 6-alate: stipules scarious, minutely oblong, persistent;

striolate with fusiform cystoliths: moncecious; unisexual cymes from adjacent axils in the whorl; the staminate twice to thrice exceeding petiole, 2—3-flowered, peduncle and pedi- cels subequal, perianth in przfloration globose (1'), tips of segments pileate, rudimentary ovary none; pistillate cymes _ minute, few-flowered, segments of perianth somewhat un- equal.—Anomalous by leaves all strictly verticillate. —On old trunks of trees, Chiul, Depart. Quiché, alt. 8,000, April 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,145.

Pilea Quichensis. Herbaceous; stem simple (20-30); slightly pubescent, sulcate: stipules deltoid (1.5'), decidu-

SS ee ee ee ee ee

po ee

: i j 4 } 4 q

1894. ] Undescribed Plants from Guatemala, 13

ous; petioles slender (1—2"), triquetrous by produced nerves of leaf, estriolate; leaves glabrate, the opposite somewhat un- equal, obliquely oblong-elliptical (4-6.5 x 1-2"), prolonged to a slender (6-9') and sharply serrate tip, base acute and induplicate, serrate throughout, 3-nerved to apex, exterior veins all equal and ascending to margin of incurved crena- tions, interior veins anastomosing, veinlets finely reticulat- ing, pellucid, upper surface striate with small cystoliths, the lower glaucous: moncecious; staminate cymes geminate, shorter than petiole (5-8'), peduncle bifurcate, flowers single and racemose or few-clustered on long spreading branches; perianth in aestivation oval (1') and exceeding pedicel, obtuse segments incrassate at the base and back, sta- mens twice longer, rudimentary ovary minutely subulate; pistillate cymes from uppermost axils much smaller, in anthe- sis conglomerate, broadly cucullate segment of perianth thick- ened and exceeding the scarious exterior ones, ovary slend- erly elliptical.—Intermediate between P. multiflora Wedd. and P. falcata Liebm.—San Miguel Uspantdn, alt. 6,500“, April 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,147. PINUS DONNELL-SMITHII Mast., Botan. Gaz. 16: 199.

PLANATION OF PLaTe II.—Fig. 1, portion of branch with leaf-scars, tufts : ;

se.—Fig. showing lines of stomata and serrations at the edge.—Fig. 3* , section of leaf di : :

m leaf or ‘‘sguama fulcrans"’

2 diam.— Fig. 6, stamen ; e side magn. 6 diam.—Fig, 8, pollen grain magn. 200 diam.—Fig. 9, ripe cone.

1g. 10, longitudinal median section of cone.—Fig. 11, detached scale of cone showing apophysis and umbo.—Fig. 12, scale of cone seen from the side.— 1g. I g seed,

Casionally furcate, filiform (12-17"), rachis angulate, bracts broadly oval and long-acuminate, flowers solitary and sessile,

14 The Botanical Gazette. [January,

sterile flowers somewhat exceeding bract, perianth }-partite, semi-erect segments oblong-lanceolate (1.5'), distinct sta- mens a third as long and exceeded by subulate staminodes, anthers bipartite-locular and shorter than filament, rudiment- ary ovary none; fertile flowers less approximate, segments of perianth linear (1.5') and equalling tube and bract, connate styles very short (0.5') and twice exceeding effete stamens, deflected stigmas bilabiate: capsules not seen.—The charac- ter is drawn from specimens collected at two localities and re- spectively of different sexes, but matching in form and anat- omy of foliage; in each the flowers are of novel structure.— Cerro Gordo, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 3,500", Sept. 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 3,869; Rinconcito, Depart. S. Rosa, alt. 4,000", Nov. 1892, Heyde & Lux, no. 4,359. Baltimore, Md.

On the color description of flowers. J. H. PILLSBURY.

In no respect is the description of a plant more often doubt- ful than in the color assigned to the flowers, especially if any trace of violet be present in the coloring. It is not at all uncommon to hear some one, reading the description of a flower, exclaim regarding the color, ‘‘that is wrong.” During the past ten years I have noted with much interest the differ- ent expressions used by students in my classes to describe the color of some of our most common wild flowers. Asarule, Ihave found that young ladies are much more explicit in their de- scription of the color of a flower than the young men of equal intellectual advancement. This is probably not due to a keener color sense, but to the possession of a fuller vocabulary of color terms. In consequence of this fuller vocabulary, the young lady seeks to express smaller differences of color. I have not found, however, that she is more accurate in her description of the color in question. Indeed, it has often seemed to me that the smaller vocabulary has led to a more careful discrimination and a more correct discernment of the components of the color. What we most need is not a fuller vocabulary but a more accurate use of the vocabulary we now possess. It is no doubt a fact that an occasional source of _ confusion in the description of floral color is a more or less feeble sense in regard to some one color. But this difficulty can not be of sufficiently frequent occurrence to be a serious source of confusion. The percentage of persons who are either color blind or possess only a feeble sense for some one color is so small that there is certainly likely to arise no very frequent trouble from such a source.

confusion of color description arises mainly from two clearly discernible sources both of which, it seems to me, we may reasonably hope to be able to remove. he first of these sources needs hardly more than the mere mention to be recognized by every botanist. I refer to the fact that we have absolutely no recognized standards of color, and no generally accepted plan of color nomenclature. To Say nothing of the conflicting theories of color which are still iN vogue, each of which has its adherents, nearly every writer

16 The Botanical Gazette. (January,

on color, who has made the least attempt to suggest a scheme of colors to be used as a basis of color work, has proposed at ~ _ least one color which is peculiar to himself, either in name or | in quality; and in only a few instances has any exact defini- 1 tion been suggested even for a single color. Where one writer has used the term red to designate a primary color, © another has used the term vermillion. The former term, with- out any limitations, will includexa variety of hues; and the latter is by no means as definite as might be supposed, since | pigments called vermillion by different manufacturers vary greatly in hue. In the few cases in which a particular color term has been proposed and designated by some such definite limitations as the wave length of its vibrations, it has been only for single colors. No series of colors has been proposed as standards upon which a scheme of nomenclature might be based. The result has been the same as before. No remedy for the confusion that prevails is offered. é

The second source of confusion is in part dependent upon the first and yet is a very distinct source of trouble. It is the

7

series of standards of color, this education will be not only Seg but easy. With a reasonable amount of training ity will not be found difficult to locate any color between tw? colors of the solar spectrum.

1894.] On the Color Description of Flowers, 17

It was these difficulties to which I have above referred in the use of color terms, and certain anomalies which I encoun- tered in the course of a series of physiological investigations regarding color sense, which led me to give my attention to the selection of a system of color standards taken from the solar spectrum, the only source of authority in color. (See Sctence for June 9th, 1893.) ,

With these standards to work from, I undertook to deter- mine the color analysis of certain of our common flowers. The following results will, I think, be interesting to botanists. The numbers given indicate per cent. of color required to produce the hue of the flower.

The symbols used in the formula stand for the six spectrum colors, viz., red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet with white and black (N for ziger being used to avoid the repeti- tion of B).

Common forsythia, F. viridissima: pure spectrum yellow.

Fringed polygala, P. paucifolia: R 48, V 52.

Wistaria, W. frutescens, wings: R 11, V 89.

4 a ‘sy. Stangara: & 9,. 20, wv ta. Flowering quince, Cydonia japonica: R 95, V 2, W 3. Wild cranesbill, Geranium maculatum: R 28, V 66, W 6. The variations of color in the early summer foliage is also

interesting. The following analyses are for the upper side of fresh and well developed healthy leaves. It is not impos- sible that a little attention to these variations in the color of foliage on the part of artists